Most people think that dyslexia prevents people from learning and reading in a straight forward way. However, it reverses letters and numbers & the person suffering from dyslexia often reads the letters or numbers in reverse.
What Happens in Dyslexia?
It takes a lot of time for a person with dyslexia to sound out a word. Because word reading takes more time and focus, the meaning of the word often is lost, and reading comprehension is poor.
Dyslexia can be broken down into different subtypes, but there is no official list of dyslexia types because they can be classified in different ways.
However, the following categories are sometimes used:
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Phonological dyslexia: The person has difficulty breaking down words into smaller units, making it hard to match sounds with their written form. This is also known as dysphonetic dyslexia or auditory dyslexia.
Surface dyslexia: The person cannot recognize a word by sight, making words hard to remember and learn. This is sometimes called dyseidectic dyslexia or visual dyslexia.
Rapid naming deficit: The person cannot quickly name a letter or number when they see it.
Double deficit dyslexia: The person finds it hard to isolate sounds also to name letters and numbers.
Visual dyslexia: The person has an unusual visual experience when looking at words, although this can overlap with surface dyslexia.
Sometimes people refer to “directional dyslexia,” meaning it is difficult to tell left from right. This is a common feature of dyslexia, but it is not a type.
If a person has difficulty with math learning, the correct term for this is dyscalculia. It is not dyslexia.
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Dyslexia is different from delayed reading development, which may reflect mental disability or cultural deprivation.
The most common signs and symptoms associated with dyslexia can be displayed at any age, but they normally are present in childhood.
Difficulty in learning to read
Many children with dyslexia have normal intelligence and receive proper teaching and parental support, but they have difficulty learning to read.
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The pace of learning is slower
Children with dyslexia may learn to crawl, walk, talk, and ride a bicycle later than the majority of others.
Delayed speech development
A child with dyslexia may take longer time in learning to speak and they may mispronounce words, find rhyming challenging.
Also, appear not to distinguish between different word sounds.
Cannot understand things easily
At school, children with dyslexia may take longer to learn pronunciation, let alone understand and read further off. There may be problems remembering the days of the week, months of the year, colours, and some arithmetic tables too.
The child may seem clumsier than their peers. Catching a ball may be difficult. Poorer eye-hand coordination may be a symptom of other similar neurological conditions, including dyspraxia.
Left and Right
The child may confuse “left” and “right”. Unable to understand the hand and leg coordination, the child may confuse left with right too.
People & children suffering from dyslexia read reverse numbers and letters without realizing.
Some children with dyslexia might not follow a pattern of progression seen in other children. They may learn how to spell a word and completely forget the next day.
If a word has more than two syllables, phonological processing becomes much more challenging. For example, with the word “unfortunately” a person with dyslexia may be able to process the sounds “un” and “ly,” but not the ones in between.
Children with dyslexia commonly find it hard to concentrate. Many adults with dyslexia say this is because, after a few minutes of non-stop struggling, the child is mentally exhausted. A higher number of children with dyslexia also have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared with the rest of the population.
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When a person with dyslexia expresses a sequence of ideas, they may seem illogical or unconnected.
People with dyslexia are more likely to develop immunological problems, such as hay fever, asthma, eczema, and other allergies.
Dyslexia and its Diagnosis
If a parent, guardian, or teacher suspects a child may have dyslexia, they should ask the child’s school about a professional evaluation. Early diagnosis is more likely to lead to effective intervention and may help the child progress in the pace of learning & understanding from their surroundings.
Test results may also open the door to more support for the child.
They may become eligible for special education services, support programs, and services in colleges and universities. The future and the present can unfold many opportunities.
Diagnostic tests often cover the following areas:
- Phonological Processing
- Automaticity and Fluency Skills
- Oral Language Skills
- Word Recognition
- Reading Comprehension
- Vocabulary Knowledge
- Family History and Early Development
- Background Information
- Decoding, Or the Ability to Read New Words by Using Letter-Sound Knowledge
Dyslexia stands apart from a very thin line in the assessment process, the examiner needs to be able to rule out other conditions or problems that may show similar symptoms. To sway away from them, the examinations need to derive accurate assessment.
Examples include vision problems, hearing impairment, lack of instruction, social and economic factors.
Treatment & methods to prevent it!
Multiple strategies help people suffering from dyslexia ease into the process of quick learning but learning things differently. Compensatory strategies can help people cope with dyslexia in daily life.
Early diagnosis and support can lead to long-term improvements.
- Psychological testing: This helps teachers develop a better-targeted program for the child. Techniques usually involve tapping into the child’s senses, including touch, vision, and hearing.
- Guidance and support: Counseling can help minimize any negative impact on self-esteem.
- On-going evaluation: Adults with dyslexia may benefit from evaluation to continue developing their coping strategies and identify areas where more support is needed.