Cancer Types, Symptoms, Early Diagnosis, Treatment

Cancer and How Will You Deal With It?

Cancer Symptoms
More than 1300 Indians die every day due to cancer.
The death rate per one lakh population among women is 57.
In the country, 11.57 lakh new cancer patients are registered and 7.84 million cancer patients are dying every year.

Enough of the stats already! There is a fighter too and the survivors too! But, the question bogs down to Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer risk factors include smoking, genetic mutations, and exposure to certain chemicals.


A glance on the type of Cancer: 

Breast Cancer

Getting mammograms regularly can lower the risk of dying from breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about when to start and how often to get a screening mammogram.

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is highly preventable in most Western countries because screening tests and a vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are available.

Colorectal Cancer

If you are 50 years old or older, get screened. Screening tests can help prevent colorectal cancer or find it early when treatment works best.


Gynecologic Cancers

Five main types of cancer affect a woman’s reproductive organs: cervical, ovarian, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar. As a group, they are referred to as gynecologic cancers.

Head and Neck Cancers

Cancers of the head and neck include cancers that start in several places in the head and throat, not including brain cancers or cancers of the eye.

Kidney Cancer

Smoking is the most important risk factor for kidney and renal pelvis cancers. To lower your risk, don’t smoke, or quit if you do.

Liver Cancer

To lower your risk for liver cancer, get vaccinated against Hepatitis B, get tested for Hepatitis C, and avoid drinking too much alcohol.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The most important thing you can do to lower your lung cancer risk is to quit smoking and avoid second-hand smoke.


Lymphoma is a general term for cancers that start in the lymph system. The two main kinds of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells. In myeloma, the cells grow too much, forming a mass or tumour in the bone marrow.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. But when ovarian cancer is found early, treatment works best.

Prostate Cancer

Most prostate cancers grow slowly and don’t cause any health problems in men who have them. Learn more and talk to your doctor before you decide to get tested or treated for prostate cancer.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States. To lower your skin cancer risk, protect your skin from the sun and avoid indoor tanning.

Thyroid Cancer

To lower the risk of thyroid cancer, avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation, including radiation from medical imaging procedures, especially in young children and around the head and neck.

Uterine Cancer

Uterine cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system.

Vaginal and Vulvar Cancers

Vaginal and vulvar cancers are rare, but all women are at risk for these cancers.


The new strata of cancer

  • Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. Cancer is not just one disease, but many diseases. There are more than 100 kinds of cancer. For more information, visit the National Cancer Institutes.
  • New guidance from WHO, launched ahead of World Cancer Day (4 February), aims to improve the chances of survival for people living with cancer by ensuring that health services can focus on diagnosing and treating the disease earlier.
  • New WHO figures released this week indicates that each year 8.8 million people die from cancer, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. One problem is that many cancer cases are diagnosed too late.
  • Even in countries with optimal health systems and services, many cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, when they are harder to treat successfully.

“Diagnosing cancer in late stages, and the inability to provide treatment, condemns many people to unnecessary suffering and early death,” says Dr Etienne Krug, Director of WHO’s Department for the Management of Noncommunicable Diseases, Disability, Violence and Injury Prevention.

“By taking the steps to implement WHO’s new guidance, healthcare planners can improve early diagnosis of cancer and ensure prompt treatment, especially for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. This will result in more people surviving cancer. It will also be less expensive to treat and cure cancer patients.”

All countries can take steps to improve early diagnosis of cancer, according to WHO’s new Guide to cancer early diagnosis.


The three steps to early diagnosis are:

  • Improve public awareness of different cancer symptoms and encourage people to seek care when these arise.
  • Invest in strengthening and equipping health services and training health workers so they can conduct accurate and timely diagnostics.
  • Ensure people living with cancer can access safe and effective treatment, including pain relief, without incurring prohibitive personal or financial hardship.

The Challenges 

Challenges are greater in low- and middle-income countries, which have lower abilities to provide access to effective diagnostic services, including imaging, laboratory tests, and pathology – all key to helping detect cancers and plan treatment.

Countries also currently have different capacities to refer cancer patients to the appropriate level of care.

WHO encourages these countries to prioritize basic, high-impact and low-cost cancer diagnosis and treatment services.

The Organization also recommends reducing the need for people to pay for care out of their own pockets, which prevents many from seeking help in the first place.

What helps your treatment? 

  • Detecting cancer early also greatly reduces cancer’s financial impact: not only is the cost of treatment much less in cancer’s early stages, but people can also continue to work and support their families if they can access effective treatment in time.

In 2010, the total annual economic cost of cancer through healthcare expenditure and loss of productivity was estimated at US$ 1.16 trillion.

  • Strategies to improve early diagnosis can be readily built into health systems at a low cost. In turn, effective early diagnosis can help detect cancer in patients at an earlier stage, enabling treatment that is generally more effective, less complex, and less expensive.

For example, studies in high-income countries have shown that treatment for cancer patients who have been diagnosed early are 2 to 4 times less expensive compared to treating people diagnosed with cancer at more advanced stages.

  • Cancer is now responsible for almost 1 in 6 deaths globally. More than 14 million people develop cancer every year, and this figure is projected to rise to over 21 million by 2030.

Progress on strengthening early cancer diagnosis and providing basic treatment for all can help countries meet national targets tied to the SDGs.

  • Most people diagnosed with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries, where two-thirds of cancer deaths occur.

According to facts, less than 30% of low-income countries have generally accessible diagnosis and treatment services, and referral systems for suspected cancer are often unavailable resulting in delayed and fragmented care.

The situation for pathology services was even more challenging: in 2015, approximately 35% of low-income countries reported that pathology services were generally available in the public sector, compared to more than 95% of high-income countries.

The note: 

Thorough knowledge of cancer control consists of prevention, early diagnosis and screening, treatment, palliative care, and survivorship care. All should be part of strong national cancer control plans.

WHO has produced comprehensive cancer control guidance. This helps governments develop and implement such plans to protect people from the onset of cancer and to treat those needing care.

WHO and the international community have set targets. This helps reduce such premature NCD deaths by 25% by 2025 and by one third by 2030, the latter as part of the SDGs.



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