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Peritoneal Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatments

One of the rarest cancers a human can endure the pain of, Peritoneal cancer. It grows as a thin film of tissue on the walls of the Abdomen. It also covers the uterus, bladder, and rectum. Made of epithelial cells, this structure is called the peritoneum. It produces a fluid that helps organs move smoothly inside the abdomen

 

Symptoms of Peritoneal Cancer:

Peritoneal cancer is also known as Peritoneum.

Similar to ovarian cancer, peritoneal cancer can be hard to detect in the early stages. It hard and difficult to pinpoint the symptoms with this cancer.

Before we confirm the peritoneum positive the disease is advanced to stage 3 or stage 4. Then, symptoms resemble those of ovarian cancer. Many of these symptoms are due to build-up of fluid (ascites) in the abdomen.

 

Peritoneum symptoms may include:

Abdominal discomfort or pain from gas, indigestion, pressure, swelling, bloating, or cramps

  • Feeling of fullness, even after a light meal
  • Nausea or diarrhoea
  • Constipation
  • Frequent urination
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight gain or loss
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Shortness of breath

 

The Root Cause of Peritoneum:

Unlike the common causes that are relative to stress, stress is the catalysing factor. It helps the disease spread faster.

What causes primary peritoneal cancer?

The causes of PPC are unknown. Like most cancers, it’s more common in older people. PPC rarely happens in men. A small number of PPCs are thought to be caused by an inherited faulty gene linked to ovarian and breast cancer in the family.

But,

PPC is a close relative of epithelial ovarian cancer. Which means, it is the most common type of malignancy that affects the ovaries. The cause of primary peritoneal cancer is unknown. But it is important for women to know that it is possible to have primary peritoneal cancer even if their ovaries have been removed.

Doctors are still unable to pinpoint the right factor that is causing patients to suffer from peritoneum cancer.

As with many types of cancer, getting older is the main risk. If breast cancer or ovarian cancer runs in a woman’s family, she may be more likely to have peritoneal cancer.

 

Diagnosis of Peritoneum:

Is the primary peritoneal cancer curable?

Unfortunately, most people are diagnosed with peritoneal cancer only after it is in the advanced stages, and when a cure is not possible. Doctors take further steps to identify and conclude the type of cancer; Informing the doctor about the exact pain, intensity and symptoms you face will help.

A pelvic exam. Your doctor will feel your vagina, uterus, ovaries, and other organs to see if their size or shape is abnormal.

Blood tests. They can identify chemicals that may signal the presence of cancer.

Ultrasound. A small instrument sends sound waves into your abdomen. When they bounce back, the machine turns them into an image that your doctor can see on a screen. That may reveal tissue with cancer.

Surgery. A surgeon will make a small cut in your belly, put in a tiny instrument with a light, look around, and take out tissue that your medical team can examine for cancer.

For example, if there’s too much fluid in your abdomen, your doctor may take some out with a needle and have it checked for cancer cells.

 

Stages of Peritoneum:

The medical support often categorises the peritoneum on the basis of stages or advancement. That helps them decide what treatment you need. The stages use Roman numerals:

  • Stage I (stage one): Cancer is in one or both of the ovaries, the almond-shaped organs that produce eggs and female hormones. Fluid in the abdomen may also have cancer cells.
  • Stage II (stage two): Disease has spread to other tissues or organs in the pelvis, such as the uterus.
  • Stage III (stage three): Cancer cells have gone father into the abdomen, such as the intestine or the outside of the liver.
  • Stage IV (stage four): Cancer has spread to even more distant parts of your body, such as to the lungs.

 

Treatment for peritoneum:

The oncologists and the several associate specialists often advice you to the treatment plan based on how far the cancer has developed, where it’s located, and how healthy you are in general, this includes:

  1. This is usually the starting point. The medical team tries to take out all visible signs of the disease. That usually includes removing the ovaries, uterus, and the tubes that connect them — the fallopian tubes. If necessary, your surgeon may take out part of your intestines or liver
  2. This uses drugs to fight the cancer. You might get them injected into a vein or through a catheter into your abdomen. You’d probably get six doses, and your doctor will spread them out over weeks or months. If you get chemotherapy through an IV, for instance, you would probably get it once every 3 weeks.
  3. This involves aiming at the cancer with intense X-rays or other radiation. Doctors rarely start someone’s treatment with this. But they may use it on a small area of the abdomen if cancer returns after the first treatment.
  4. Targeted therapy. This treatment uses drugs or other substances to attack certain molecules such as proteins on cancer cells. It does not kill healthy cells and is typically used in conjunction with chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation.

 

Side Effects

Cancer treatment usually has effects on your body that you may feel while it’s going on or afterward. These can include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Infections or fever
  • Problems with the wound from surgery
  • Bleeding or bruising easily
  • Hair loss from some chemo medicines
  • Fatigue

 

 

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