“Chronic diseases are the long-term medical conditions that are generally progressive”
Statistics show that chronic diseases are the leading cause of deaths in India, accounting for 60% of all deaths annually, killing more than 5 million people every year. Looking at the current scenario, chronic ailments are a disease burden in India, being a major cause of infirmity and death, leading to a serious impact on individuals and on society in general. According to a WHO report, the major risk factors for chronic diseases are:
Elevated blood pressure or hypertension
Raised blood glucose
Climate or air pollution
The top most common chronic diseases in India are:
PCOD (Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease)
What makes the situation more alarming is the fact that most of us live in a state of denial, ignoring the common signs and symptoms of these chronic diseases. Regular monitoring of our health parameters and using these results as a benchmark to initiate changes in lifestyle with proper medications will not only save many lives but reduce the cost burden of these dreaded diseases to a major extent.
Listed below are a detailed account of these diseases, their causes, and information about prevention.
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that develops from the breast cells. It mostly starts in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. The breast cancer that starts in the lobules is known as “Lobular Carcinoma”, while the one that develops from the ducts is called as “Ductal Carcinoma”.
It is the most invasive cancer in females worldwide.
Some of the risk factors that can impact on a woman’s likelihood of developing breast cancer are:
History of breast cancer
Having had certain types of breast lump
Dense breast tissue
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Adopting lifestyle modifications can significantly help reduce a woman’s risk of developing breast cancer:
Avoiding alcohol or having them in moderation
Exercising 5 days a week
Having a healthy and well-balanced diet
Limiting hormone therapy
Maintaining a healthy body weight
Breast cancer screening and test
BREAST CANCER PREVALENCE
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in India, accounting for 25% to 32% of cancers in females. It has been seen that India is experiencing an unprecedented rise in the number of breast cancer cases across all sections of the society.
Prostate cancer begins to grow in the prostate gland cells and It affects exocrine gland in a male reproductivIt affects only men.
There are no specific causes of prostate cancer but the probable factors are:
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
There is no established fact that shows prostate cancer prevention, but the risk can be reduced by making healthy choices like:
Eat more fat from plants than from animals
Increase the intake of fruits and vegetables
Reduce the intake of dairy products
PROSTATE CANCER PREVALENCE
Prostate cancer (PC) is accounted as the second most common cause of cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide.
In India, it is the second most common cancer in Indian males. The incidence rate in India is 9-10/100000 population which is higher than any other parts of Asia and Africa.
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which the blood glucose levels remain higher than normal for a prolonged period. There are two main kinds of diabetes: Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.
The risk factors for diabetes (Type 2) are:
Age (45 or older)
Family history of diabetes
History of Gestational diabetes
Certain health conditions associated with insulin resistance
Overweight or obesity
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
Fasting triglycerides over 250 mg/dL
Obstructive sleep apnea and chronic sleep deprivation
Diabetes can be prevented by:
Eliminating grains and sugars for diet
Eliminating fructose and Trans fats
Having plenty of omega-3 fast from a high-quality, animal-based source
Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a budding epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently been diagnosed with the disease.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body and has an important natural function. If there is an excess of cholesterol in the blood then it can combine with other substances present in the blood and stick to the walls of the arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can cause narrowing of the arteries or can even block them.
There are many things that can affect cholesterol levels, these include:
Food: Eating too much of Trans fat, saturated fat
Obesity or overweight
Being physically inactive
Cholesterol can be prevented or lowered by:
In has been reported that at least three-fourths of the country’s population has abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides, suffering from a condition called dyslipidemia, which increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases.
Cardiovascular diseases are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels.
The most important risk factors of for cardiovascular diseases include:
High cholesterol levels
Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by following:
Cessation of tobacco use
Reduction of salt in diet
Increase the intake of fruits and vegetables
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVALENCE
It has been reported that in the past two years, there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of heart diseases in India. According to government statistics, approximately one-fourth of all deaths among people in the 25-69 years age group are due to cardiovascular diseases.
POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOD)
PCOD is a disorder of the endocrine system, characterized by the formation of cysts, which are benign growths filled with fluids in the ovaries.
The exact cause of PCOD is not known, but it is believed to be caused by an imbalance between Progesterone and Estrogen, and an excess of Androgen.
PCOD cannot be prevented. But an early diagnosis and treatment can help in preventing long-term complications, such as infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.
PCOD has a prevalence ranging from approximately 2.2% to 26% in adult women within the age group 18 to 45 years.
Asthma is a chronic condition in which the airways that carry air to the lungs are inflamed and narrowed.
The underlying cause of asthma is unknown, but it’s believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Asthma symptoms can be prevented by following measures:
Using allergy-proof covers on pillows and mattress
Remove carpets and stuff toys from the bedroom
Avoid areas where people smoke
Avoid harsh cleaning products and chemicals
Reduce the stress levels
Take control of the seasonal allergies
Adopting healthy lifestyle practices such as a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and quitting or avoiding tobacco, regular monitoring and taking proper medications can prevent or control the onset of debilitating and expensive complications of chronic diseases.
Also Read: IS THIS THE TIME TO STOP DIETING?