Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment

Type 2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

type 2 diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms: As generic as it sounds, Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way it should. Often people with type 2 diabetes are said to have insulin resistance.

Further, people who are middle-aged or older are most likely to get this kind of diabetes, so it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But, type 2 diabetes also affects children of various age group, mainly because of childhood obesity.

Type 2 diabetes being the most common type of disease, it is one of the deadliest. Before diabetes there half a section of the world that suffers from prediabetes, Prediabetes is a phase where blood sugar (or blood glucose) is high but not high enough to be diabetes yet.


Let us understand the symptoms:

  • The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be so mild that you don’t notice them. About 8 million people who have Being very thirsty
  • Hunger
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Getting more infections
  • Peeing a lot
  • Blurry vision
  • Being cranky
  • Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet
  • Fatigue/feeling worn out
  • Wounds that don’t heal
  • Yeast infections that keep coming back

Do check with the doctor, if you notice dark rashes around your neck or armpits that are often a sign of insulin resistance.

Another type 2 diabetes risk factors include the following:

  • High blood pressure.
  • High blood triglyceride (fat) levels.
  • Gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds.
  • High-fat and carbohydrate diet.
  • High alcohol intake.
  • Sedentary lifestyle.
  • Obesity or being overweight.

Causes of Type 2 Diabetes:

Insulin is the primal part of the diabetes concern.

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Research and study prove, although genetics and environmental factors, such as being overweight and inactive, seem to be contributing factors.

The lead cause of diabetes, Insulin imbalance.

Insulin is a hormone that comes from the gland situated behind and below the stomach (pancreas).

  • The pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream.
  • The insulin circulates, enabling sugar to enter your cells.
  • Insulin lowers the amount of sugar in your bloodstream.
  • As your blood sugar level drops, so does the secretion of insulin from your pancreas.


The role of glucose

Glucose, is the scientific and English term for sugar in the body. It is a main source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and other tissues.

  • Glucose comes from two major sources: food and your liver.
  • Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin.
  • Your liver stores and makes glucose.

When your glucose levels are low, such as when you haven’t eaten in a while, the liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.

In type 2 diabetes, this process doesn’t work well. Instead of moving into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. As blood sugar levels increase, the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas release more insulin, but eventually these cells become impaired and can’t make enough insulin to meet the body’s demands.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis

The following are the steps to examine Type 2 diabetes:

Glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test.

This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent, and a result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes.

Random blood sugar test.

Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per litre (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a blood sample showing that your blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes.

Fasting blood sugar test.

A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. A reading of less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes.

Please note, If your fasting blood sugar is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

Oral glucose tolerance test.

This test is less commonly used than the others, except during pregnancy. You’ll need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor’s office. Blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours.

Screening is also recommended for people who are under 45 and overweight if there are other heart disease or diabetes risk factors present.

Including people living a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or blood pressure above 140/90 millimetres of mercury (mm Hg).

Yet again, please note, If you’re diagnosed with diabetes, the doctor may do other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes — since the two conditions often require different treatments.


Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Management of type 2 diabetes includes:

  • Insulin therapy
  • Blood sugar monitoring
  • Weight loss
  • Healthy eating
  • Regular exercise
  • These steps will definitely help us keep the blood sugar levels in check and prevent if any.

Weight loss

Losing weight can lower your blood sugar levels.

Losing just 5 to 10 percent of your body weight can make a difference, it does!

Though a sustained weight loss of 7 percent or more of your initial weight seems to be ideal, it still works if the body is exposed to exercise.

For example, someone who weighs 180 pounds (82 kilograms) would need to lose a little less than 13 pounds (5.9 kilograms) to make an impact on blood sugar levels.

Controlling portions and eating healthy foods are simple ways to start taking the weight off.

Healthy eating

Contrary to popular perception, there’s no specific diabetes diet. However, it’s important to centre your diet around:

  • Fewer calories
  • Fewer refined carbohydrates, especially sweets
  • Fewer foods containing saturated fats
  • More vegetables and fruits
  • More foods with fibre

Physical activity

Everyone needs regular aerobic exercise, and people who have type 2 diabetes are no exception. Get your doctor’s OK before starting an exercise program. Choose activities you enjoy, such as walking, swimming and biking, so that you can make them part of your daily routine.

Monitoring your blood sugar

Depending on your treatment plan, you may need to check and record your blood sugar level every now and then or, if you’re on insulin, multiple times a day. Ask your doctor how often he or she wants you to check your blood sugar. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range.

Diabetes medications and insulin therapy

Some people who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy. The decision about which medications are best depends on many factors, including your blood sugar level and any other health problems you have.

Bariatric surgery

If the patient is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, the body mass index (BMI) is greater than 35, you may be a candidate for weight-loss surgery (bariatric surgery). Dramatic improvements in blood sugar levels are often seen in people with type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery, depending on the procedure performed.

Surgeries that bypass a portion of the small intestine have more of an effect on blood sugar levels than do other weight-loss surgeries.



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